Professor of Ancient History, University of Oxford, 1985–94. Pericles did achieved his goals for Athens. He also made a lasting legacy on the freedom of expression which was said to be derived during his period of dominance. But now a most extraordinary thing happened. Year 12 Ancient History Assessment Task. The only name associated with his early education is that of the musical theorist Damon, whose influence, it is said, was not just confined to music. Pericles is perhaps best remembered for a building program centred on the Acropolis which included the Parthenon and for a funeral oration he gave early in the Peloponnesian War, as recorded by Thucydides. When his two legitimate sons died, their son Pericles had to be legitimated. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. He did not lose his reign till his death. How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness? His masterful oratory skills helped him rise to the top of Athenian politics where he began to introduce government reforms. … His opponents often pointed to his liberal spending of money on public art and architecture. His aristocratic father had led the Athenian assembly and fought at the Battle of Salamis in the Persian Wars. Pericles was an Athenian statesman, he led many naval expeditions in more that 20 years. That Pericles immediately succeeded the assassinated Ephialtes as head of the democratic party in 461 is an ancient oversimplification; there were other men of considerable weight in Athens in the next 15 years. Useful reading: Russel Meiggs, The Athenian Empire; Victor Ehrenberg, From Solon to Socrates. After the second defeat of the Persians, all of Greece rejoiced. A correct assessment is vital for understanding Pericles, but explanations vary considerably; some argue that Pericles was merely forging a low-level political weapon for use against Cimon, who had a foreign mother. Perhaps outbid in his search for popular support, Xanthippus was ostracized in 484 bce, though he returned in 480 to command the Athenian force at Mycale in 479, probably dying soon after. He brought forth Athens to prestige especially during the Peloponnesian War implementing his so-called Periclean Grand Strategy. He brought forth Athens to prestige especially during the Peloponnesian War implementing his so-called Periclean Grand Strategy. It goes without saying that this decree furthered the economic dominance of Athens over the empire. He gave a speech in Athens, a public speech, honoring the many warriors who were killed in battle after the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Only rumour associates him directly with the political convulsion of the next two years, which drove Cimon into exile, swung Athens away from its alignment with Sparta, and decisively strengthened the democratic elements in the Athenian constitution; but he probably did support the democratic leader Ephialtes in this period, and his introduction of pay for juries, unfortunately undatable, is a logical consequence of Ephialtes’ reforms. Pericles mother, Agariste, came from a wealthy, powerful family. Pericles Major Accomplishments He made the Acropolis of Athens as a symbol of the greatness of the city. From him Pericles may have inherited a leaning toward the people, along with landed property at Cholargus, just north of Athens, which put him high, though not quite at the highest level, on the Athenian pyramid of wealth. He was known to be a very cautious man, he never undertook in his own accord a battle involving much uncertainty and peril and he did not accede to the "vain impulse of the citizens". This vote meant that the old noble council lost its power and Pericles used this moment to … Pericles married in his late 20s but divorced some 10 years later. The law also may have passed because of a general wish to restrict access to the benefits of office and public distributions, but there was never any disposition on the part of Athenians to restrict economic opportunities for foreigners—who served in the fleet, worked on public buildings, and had freedom of trade and investment, with the crucial, but normal, exception of land and houses. Author of. Pericles was well known for his His achievements included the construction of the Acropolis, begun in 447. This helped his father, Xanthippus, focus on a political career. These sources are not all ascertainable, but they certainly preserve an invaluable amount of fact and contemporary gossip, which is sometimes nearly as useful. Pericles was born into the first generation able to use the new weapon of the popular vote against the old power of family politics. Nonetheless, some women, known as hetaeras , did receive an education with the specific purpose of entertaining men, similar to the Japanese geisha tradition. Which side of Europe did Germany invade first-east or west? This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War). His account suffers from the fact that, 40 years younger, he had no firsthand knowledge of Pericles’ early career; it suffers also from his approach, which concentrates exclusively on Pericles’ intellectual capacity and his war leadership, omitting biographical details, which Thucydides thought irrelevant to his theme. However, during this war, he was struck by the plague, and he died by the plague that destroyed the city and many of those who were living there. The city of Athens, however, was physically still much as it had been left by the Persian sack of 480, and its gods were inadequately housed. His achievements included the construction of the Acropolis, begun in 447. A few days before Pericles’ birth, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, Agariste dreamed she bore a lion. The economy thrived and the government became more democratic. His position rested on his continual reelection to the generalship and on his prestige, based, according to Thucydides, on his intelligence and incorruptibility. In the second year of the Peloponnesian War a plague struck Athens, which was crowded with evacuees from the countryside, killing perhaps a quarter of the city’s inhabitants. Funeral Oration. During the Second Sacred War Pericles led the Athenian army against Delphi and reinstated Phocis in its sovereign rights on the oracle. He soon left their political camp, probably on the question of relations with Persia, and took the then new path of legal prosecution as a political weapon. The upper classes certainly had no prejudice against foreign marriages; the lower classes may well have had more, and, on the whole, it is possible to view Pericles here as championing exclusivist tendencies against immigrants who might break down the fabric of Athenian society. He claims that the uniqueness of the Athenian constitution stems from its bold innovation. This was one reason the Athenians under Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to hold office. In the remainder of his oration, Pericles is engaged in a characterization of the essence of Athens. How does a dictator become the leader of the country? Pericles statesmanship has been defined in many ways. for print copy click here. Among the contributions made by Pericles to the Athenian democracy was the payment of magistrates. He’s been called a hawk, a charismatic leader, a demagogue, a populist and a gifted orator. Children of foreign mothers would be excluded. Under his leadership Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire flourished, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece between the Greco-Persian and Peloponnesian wars. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness? Knowledge of the life of Pericles derives largely from two sources. In the winter of 478/7 a meeting was held at the island of Delos. Here, a group of independent Greek city-states, including Athens, decided to form a voluntary organisation called the League of Delos. The three main goals he had were; to strengthen the Athenian democracy, to hold and strengthen the empire, and also to glorify Athens. He introduced the practice of paying citizens to serve on juries, which allowed poor men to … It was the custom at the time to honor the dead each year who had died defending their city-state, the city-state of Athens. From him Pericles may have inherited a leaning toward the people, along with landed property just north of Athens, which made him quite wealthy by Athenian standards. Pericles was born into the Athenian aristocracy. Instead, Pericles is interested in exploring the particular spirit of Athens, and those institutions that facilitated its prosperity and greatness. Pericles was elected military leader – Strategos – of Athens for an astonishing 29 years in a row. In 1781, George Washington forced the surrender of lord Cornwallis at? He made the Acropolis of Athens as a symbol of the greatness of the city. The social and financial … He also led Athens during the period of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles "How did the policies of Pericles contribute to the expanding power and influence of the Athenian Empire? Answers (1) Maelyn 3 October, 08:00. Pericles. To speak of this legislation as a move toward creating a “master race” is thus partly misleading, but the demagogic nature of the law seems clear. The outbreak of war among the Greek states in 459 put a premium on military talent, and Pericles’ only recorded campaign in the next few years was a naval expedition in the Corinthian Gulf in 454, in which Athens defeated Achaea but failed to win more important objectives. Scientists and historians have tried to identify the disease responsible based on the descriptions of Thucydides, but no consensus exists. In 451 or 450 Pericles carried a law confining Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian parentage on both sides. The historian Thucydides admired him profoundly and refused to criticize him. Pericles set about toppling the Areopagus (ar-ee-OP-uh-guhs), or the noble council of Athens, in favor of a more democratic system that represented the interests of the people. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This was one reason the Athenians under Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to hold office. The gaps are partly filled by the Greek writer Plutarch, who, 500 years later, began writing the life of Pericles to illustrate a man of unchallengeable virtue and greatness at grips with the fickleness of the mob and finished rather puzzled by the picture he found in his sources of Pericles’ responsibility for a needless war. Cimon died after 451, during his last campaign against Persia. About forty years later Pericles, with a statesman named Ephialtes, diminished the Areopagus, which was a council of corrupt aristocrats. His Alcmaeonid mother, Agariste, provided him with relationships of sharply diminishing political value and her family curse, a religious defilement that was occasionally used against him by his enemies. Pericles came from a rich and high-ranking noble family. Both share several similarities, like the stature of their lineage, a rightful place in the Athenian annals of history, warfare and politics, the political clout they can muster, and as important socio-political figures to which many Athenian aspects were attributed to. In 447 BC Pericles engaged in his most admired excursion, the expulsion of barbarians from the Thracian peninsula of Gallipoli, to establish Athenian colonists in the region. This alliance was called the Delian League. Pericles was among its victims. Pericles 495–429 B.C. His father, Xanthippus, began his political career by a dynastic marriage to Agariste of the controversial Alcmaeonid family. One is Pericles, and the other one is Alcibiades. His views and oratory did much to democratize Athens and they still inspire democrats to this day. How is the history of king Leopold taught in the Congo? Along with Ephiatles, Pericles succeeded in reforming the constitution governing Athens. The causes of the Peloponnesian War have been much debated, but most ancient historians laid the blame on Pericles and Athens. Pericles also elevated Athens’s role within the Delian League, a naval alliance of Greek city-states unified to fight the Persians. Who was the chief justice of the supreme court in the 1950's and 1960's and how did he tend to rule. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The last phase in the political development of Athens and its democracy occurred during the political ascendancy of the democratic leader Pericles. That Pericles’ skull was of unusual shape seems well attested, but one can hardly speculate about the possible psychological consequences. C) The economy thrived under Pericles and he built magnificent temples. Cleisthenes wanted power for himself, but he didn’t want another tyranny. Islands and city-states across the Aegean built ships, armed crews and sent lavish donations to the League's treasury on the island of Delos. However, many argue that Pericles was not a true democrat and claim that he was a populist and a demagogue. 0. Pericles goes to great lengths to detail the glory and the esteem of the Athenian empire. Pericles was an Athenian statesman. Updates? 1 - Mercantilism benefited the colonies. How did the growth of the Athenian power lead to war? With a government that pursues liberty and gives power to the many and not the few, Athenian democracy has become a model for success for all the Greek city-states. Pericles (c. 495-429 B.C.) Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Pericles was an Athenian statesman, he led many naval expeditions in more that 20 years. Athenian women were dedicated to the care and upkeep of the family home. By a decree Pericles made the use of Athenian weights and measures and Athenian coins compulsory in most part of the empire. Pericles began changing Athen's democratic policies and the Athenian constitution as early as 462 when he, along with Ephiatles, created a "vote in the popular assembly." Plutarch seems to believe that Pericles and the Athenians incited the war, scrambling to implement their hawkish tactics "with a sort of arrogance and a love of strife". Which of the following two statements does not describe mercantilism? 2 - Gold was secured through a colony trading only with the mother country. This brought stable policies to Athens’ relations with other Greek and foreign states. One hundred years later, an orator argued for firm distinctions of status on the ground that the law provided even the poorest Athenian girl with a dowry in the form of her citizenship. Only those born to two people of Athenian citizen status could henceforth be citizens and eligible to be magistrates. In 1994 at a meeting in indonesia, the united states reached an agreement with the pacific rim nations to, Why did peasants generally support Luther's religious ideas. © 2021 Education Expert, All rights reserved. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. How did Pericles contribute to the Athenian greatness? A) Organized direct democracy in which a large number of male citizens took part in day to day affairs of government. Circa 461 B.C., Pericles became the ruler of Athens. Politically he is credited with some kind of rapprochement with Cimon, who is said to have been recalled and allowed to resume the war with Persia, much preferred to fighting other Greeks, but the date of Cimon’s recall is uncertain, and the rumours are hard to disentangle. 3. He paved war for an imperialist Athens that would rival the neighboring cities like Sparta. Athens' influence began to dominate the other city-states of the Greek area. Why do you think such a law exists in the first place? Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Pericles, (born c. 495 bce, Athens—died 429, Athens), Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. Athenian coins were to be purchased along with goods in the Athenian market. His father, Xanthippus, a typical member of this generation, almost certainly of an old family, began his political career by a dynastic marriage into the controversial family of the Alcmaeonids. Essay by xircom96, High School, 12th grade, A, July 2004 . The economy thrived and the government became more democratic. The arrival of the Sophist philosophers in Athens occurred during his middle life, and he seems to have taken full advantage of the society of Zeno and particularly Anaxagoras, from whom he is said to have learned impassivity in the face of trouble and insult and skepticism about alleged divine phenomena. The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles. He paved war for an imperialist Athens that would rival the neighboring cities like Sparta. Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras. Athenian society was a patriarchy; men held all rights and advantages, such as access to education and power. The League was so named because its treasury was originally located on the island of the same name. The Persian Wars affected the Greek city-states because they came under the leadership of Athens and were to never again invade the Persian Armies. 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