Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Yes The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Shared living spaces, close physical contact, and variable hygiene likely contribute to the enhanced transmission of infectious agents in the dormitory setting . While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm2 area. Yes Although the power to detect moderate risk relationships was sufficient for the survey component of the study, the microbiological component was powered only to detect large determinants. While 273 subjects (54.5%) reported desktop cleaning at least once per month, 345 (68.9%) stated that they cleaned their keyboard less than once per semester. Columbia University Health Services, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliations Disposable dishes or cups were cleaned frequently (daily n = 280, 55.9%; weekly n = 114, 22.8%). Students in the university setting may be ideal targets given their transition from family to independent living, increased risk for infectious diseases , and potential for effective behavioral modification. Environmental hygiene includes, in general, activities of disinfection (to control the bacteria and organisms which are harmful to health), fumigation, disinfestation and rodent control. As viral illnesses, particularly upper respiratory infections and gastroenteritis, are common in the dormitory setting, bacterial contamination will not reflect the etiology of these diseases. All participants were given an information sheet describing the study and provided verbal informed consent. Dr Charu Goel Sachdeva. Environmental Hygiene, Environmental Services, Clinical Interventions By Kelly M. Pyrek Numerous studies have demonstrated that contaminated environmental surfaces in healthcare facilities can contribute to the transmission of infectious pathogens and that the cleaning and disinfection of these high-touch surfaces has been suboptimal. Several objects showed a high burden of bacterial contamination, with over 90% of computer keyboards positive when cultured late in the day. Search 334 Environmental Hygiene jobs now available on Indeed.com, the world's largest job site. Subjects noted a median of 5 hand hygiene events per day (range 0 to 30 times), each lasting 16.5 seconds on average (range 0 to 70 seconds). Participants undergoing environmental sampling had their survey data linked with bacterial culture results. A total of 501 students completed the study survey. Although a causal link between bacterial colonization and viral infection is implausible, we hypothesize that surface contamination is a marker of poor hygiene, which itself has been linked with viral upper respiratory infections and gastroenteritis. For the survey portion of our study, pre-enrollment sample size analysis demonstrated sufficient power to detect clinically meaningful differences between comparison groups (95% power for odds ratios of 2 or greater for total sample size of 500). Such a finding may reflect that environmental colonization is inconsequential in this setting. In 2018 IFH published a consensus report which sets out why hygiene in home and everyday life is such an important part of public health, and what needs to be done to change hygiene understanding and hygiene behaviour as a means to tackle some of the key present day health issues such as reducing antibiotic resistance and reducing pressure on our health systems. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460. Regular face- and hair-washing, application of deodorant, and the use of soap and feminine hygiene products are other important aspects of personal hygiene to consider. In addition, sample size may have limited our ability to identify statistically significant associations. These conditions include unsanitary water supplies, waste disposal systems, food sources, and temporary or permanent housing structures. The vast majority of study participants believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention (n = 461, 92%). Specimens were refrigerated after collection and cultured efficiently. Microbiologic samples of the dormitory environment were collected from 60 study participants (30 men and 30 women). By. Only 5.4% (n = 27) noted that their personal hygiene was worse than other students; 11% (n = 55) reported that their household hygiene was worse than others'. Center for Interdisciplinary Research to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliations Most study participants perceived their hygiene habits to be equal or better than other classmates. Also, it aims to protect water and food supplies and to safely manage environmental factors. Further research into environmental reservoirs of infectious diseases may delineate whether surface decontamination is an effective target of hygiene interventions in this population. The first step might be to evacuate all of the people living in the building. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460.t002. Survey data were analyzed with Pearson's chi-squared test for categorical variables (e.g., Likert scale responses). Performed the experiments: BAM BC KH LC NK DS CT AG. In contrast, a 2008 study by Sandora et al. Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York, United States of America. Contributed equally to this work with: Infrequent cleaning (once per semester or less) was common for many surfaces including bookshelves (n = 358, 71.5%), television remote controls (n = 425, 84.8%), light switches (n = 414, 82.6%), and refrigerator handles (n = 261, 72.7%). The >10 CFUs cut point was chosen for this dichotomous analysis because of its clinical relevance as an inoculation dose for particular pathogens (e.g., S. aureus) and its statistical discrimination (>10 CFUs represented the upper quartile of our environmental specimens). Although >95% of Columbia University undergraduates live in residence halls and participate in the University-sponsored dining plans, upper year students and those with dietary restrictions are less likely to purchase meal plans and may be underrepresented in our sample. While cleanliness itself may be a meaningful marker of safe hygiene practices, environmental contamination appears unrelated to reported household hygiene and risk of clinical infection. What Does George Soros' Open Society Foundations Network Fund? Environmental sampling visits occurred within two weeks of survey completion. Little is known about the prevalence or significance of environmental contamination in the university setting. Importance Of Personal And Environmental Hygiene When working in a healthcare setting, regardless of an individual’s role, every team member is responsible for maintaining not only exceptional personal hygiene but also the cleanliness of their surroundings. To achieve the greatest health beneﬁts, improvements in hygiene should be made concurrently with improvements in the water supply and sanitation, and be integrated with other interventions, such as improving nutrition … While the vast majority of study participants (n = 461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. Study subjects noted diverse determinants of their hygiene habits. Despite these limitations, our study provides new insight into the relationship between hygiene and health in the college dormitory setting. Although the surfaces cultured represented a standardized set of commonly-touch items present across all dormitory settings, other surfaces remained untested. Énumère quelques publications qui peuvent aider les professionnels en hygiène industrielle à réussir leur examen de qualification. Declared major did not significantly predict hand hygiene practices. Several survey respondents reported symptoms of an infectious disease over the preceding month. Lower classmen were significantly more likely than upper classmen to report washing their hands after using the toilet. While our study demonstrated significant bacterial surface contamination, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was infrequently found. Benjamin A. Miko, In 2009, Brooke et al. Colony forming units (CFU) counts were determined using a binocular dissecting microscope. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Students entering the dining hall were eligible to participate in the study which included (1) completion of a standardized hygiene questionnaire and (2) culturing of environmental dormitory surfaces in a subset of subjects. Areas of question included personal hygiene behaviors, household hygiene behaviors, beliefs and knowledge surrounding hygiene, and reported health status. While every effort was made to culture surfaces in a timely manner, some subjects were cultured up to two weeks after survey completion, further impairing our comparison of questionnaire data with microbiological findings. sampled 70 commonly touched surfaces on a university campus for S. aureus . Nearly 80% of study participants (n = 399) reported that disinfection was important for preventing infection. Serial dilutions of each specimen in phosphate buffered saline (e.g., undiluted, 1∶10, 1∶100) were inoculated onto sheep's blood agar plates and incubated at 35°C for 24 hours. Types of hygiene issues Causes of hygiene issues Further information It is quite common for people with dementia to lose interest in, or forget about, personal hygiene. Funding: This research was supported by “Training in Interdisciplinary Research to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance,” NIH T90 NR010824 at Columbia University and by the The Clorox Company. Personal hygiene for men A build-up of secretions called smegma can form under the foreskin of uncircumcised men. Department of Biology and Medical Laboratory Technology, Bronx Community College, Bronx, New York, United States of America, Affiliation Quantitative cultures were not obtained for these organisms. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Personal & environmental hygiene We all have our bad days when you may have worked out in the gym and not had an opportunity to take an extremely necessary shower. When it comes to our bodies, they should be bathed at least once a day with clean water and detergent soap. While Neisseria meningitides has received particularly intense study due to its morbidity and mortality, numerous bacterial and viral pathogens spread efficiently and cause disease in this setting . Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n = 367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Bacterial contamination of common surfaces in both personal and shared dormitory spaces may contribute additional risk. 5.4% (n = 27) of study subjects perceived hand sanitizer as more effective than soap and water. Center for Interdisciplinary Research to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, Participants included in our previous study were not included in this analysis. Cleaning of bathroom doors and toilet flush handles was frequent for a subset of study participants (at least once weekly, n = 205, 40.9% and n = 225, 44.9%, respectively). These conditions include unsanitary water supplies, waste disposal systems, food sources, and temporary or permanent housing structures. While environmental contamination has been documented in household settings, its role in transmission of infectious pathogens remains unclear . Good personal hygiene involves keeping all parts of the external body clean and healthy. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS software (PASW Statistics 18.0; IBM SPSS, Armonk, NY). Once identified, the hygienists then implement scientifically sound ways to eradicate the dangers present. As participants were asked to clean their room with their normal frequency, they were not asked when individual surfaces were last cleaned. Personal hygiene may be described as the key of maintaining cleanliness and grooming of the external body. If ever someone pollute the street with toxic waste (spitting or vomiting, for example), the State is responsible for the respective cleaning using companies in environmental hygiene. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AG EL. The instrument retrospectively assessed specific aspects of health and hygiene over the preceding 30 days. More study participants utilized disinfecting products compared to non-disinfecting products (n = 299, 59.7% v. n = 165, 32.9% respectively). Personal hygiene; Environmental hygiene; 1. Although this can be upsetting for families and carers, working out ways of coping without argument or confrontation can be worthwhile. While the majority of subjects reported that their living space was cleaned on a weekly basis (n = 314, 62.7%), a subset reported cleaning on a daily basis (n = 53, 10.6%) or monthly basis (n = 61, 12.2%). Environmental hygiene can be looked at from two aspects, viz. found that a multifactorial hygiene campaign including decontamination of classroom surfaces reduced the risk of gastroenteritis among a cohort of school children . No, Is the Subject Area "Infectious diseases" applicable to this article? Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. No, Is the Subject Area "Respiratory infections" applicable to this article? July 28, 2020. The study survey included 60 questions of varying styles (Likert-scale, multiple choice, and open-ended answers) and was based on a validated hygiene metric that had been previously piloted by our research team in this setting . Maintain personal and environmental hygiene to limit monsoon woes. He will have under his supervision a team of over 120 trained employees made up of managers, professionals, technicians and office staff (white collar and manual (blue collar)). Those wishing to volunteer for this portion of the study were asked to provide contact information to schedule the study visit to their living space. Surface contamination showed little variation by type of dormitory, reported frequency of cleaning, or reported frequency of illness among the subset of study participants undergoing environmental sampling (n = 60, Table 3). Yes Hence, the relatively clean environment was particularly surprising. It is all activity aimed at inproving and maintaining a healthy condition neccessary for our well-being. Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to reported hygiene or health in the university setting. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460, Editor: Holger Rohde, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, Received: August 10, 2012; Accepted: October 23, 2013; Published: November 27, 2013. Martha usang - 16 October 2020: 3: 1 0. environmental hygiene. Personal Hygiene Personal hygiene refers to practices that keep our bodies and our immediate environment clean. The vast majority of study participants (n = 495, 98.8%) described their health as either “excellent” or “good;” 79.6% (n = 399) reported no medical comorbidities. Bevin Cohen, Affiliations Taken together, our sampling technique, use of survey data, and sample size may have weakened our ability to quantify the association between household hygiene, environmental contamination, and health. Citation: Miko BA, Cohen B, Haxall K, Conway L, Kelly N, Stare D, et al. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 2, 0.4%) and cardiovascular disease (n = 1, 0.2%) were rarely noted. What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment? Division of Infectious Diseases, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors. The presence or absence of clinical infection prior to microbiological sampling may have altered endogenous bacterial shedding into the environment or cleaning habits. Yes No broth enrichment was performed. Two research assistants were present at each residence hall visit and obtained written informed consent for microbiologic sampling, as outlined below. All individuals participating in the study completed the questionnaire. Florence Nightingale introduced several important hygiene rules, such as floor cleaning and personal hygiene for the employee. Once the dwelling is clear of MRSA, the hygienists might instruct the residents about how to keep the building clean to thwart against a recurrence of the bacteria. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click vi In this lecture note the importance of keeping personal hygiene is As with the survey data, Pearson's chi-squared was used to assess independence of microbiological results. Similar to military barracks, college dormitories house large numbers of young adults in close proximity, often with variable infection control practices. Even if you follow a proper oral hygiene routine it is still recommended to visit a … examined S. aureus surface contamination at the University of Washington (specifically, the dental school clinic, general university campus, student homes, and surrounding community) , . The host of diseases is posing a serious threat while Covid-19 is playing the role of force-multiplier. Taken together, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that several organisms persist and transmit in the inanimate environment. If this finding is confirmed, hygiene interventions targeting the environment may be ill suited for this population, despite the perception of their poor cleaning habits. Similar to personal hygiene, household hygiene habits varied greatly among study participants. If you are uncircumcised, gently pull back the foreskin when you have a shower and clean with water. Personal hygiene refers to the comprehensive cleaning of and taking care of your body. It includes procedures used in a variety of domestic situations such as hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, food and water hygiene, general home hygiene (hygiene of environmental sites and surfaces), care of domestic animals, and home health care (the care of those who are at greater risk of infection). While the large majority of students (n = 474, 94.6%) reported washing their hands “always” or “most of the time” after using the toilet, hand hygiene was significantly less common in other scenarios: 246 students (49.1%) reported washing their hands “always” or “most of the time” prior to meals; 50% reported that they practiced hand hygiene after touching a pet or other animal. The environmental sampling protocol was subsequently explained to study participants. Family influence was most commonly reported (n = 384, 76.6%), followed by education (n = 331, 66.1%), peers (n = 285, 56.9%), and work experience (n = 277, 55.3%). The aims of this study were to (1) describe the knowledge, practices, and beliefs about personal and environmental hygiene held by college students living in dormitories; (2) examine and quantify the microbial flora present on surfaces in students' dormitory rooms and bathrooms; (3) determine whether there is an association between reported knowledge, practices, and beliefs about personal and home hygiene and frequency of illness; and (4) determine whether there is an association between microbial flora found in dormitory environments and frequency of illness. here. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliations It is likely that any bias present in these self-reports, however, would be over-reporting of hygienic practices. The relationships between reported personal hygiene practices and demographic factors are shown in Table 2. noted no reduction in symptoms from viral infectious diseases in households that utilized antimicrobial cleaning and hand washing products . Such variability was seen in the individual surfaces sampled. Personal hygiene refers to the things we do to clean and care for our bodies. Competing interests: This study was partly funded by The Clorox Company. In many areas of the world, practicing personal hygiene etiquette is difficult due to lack of clean water and soap. Personal hygiene. PLoS ONE 8(11): Reported hand hygiene practices varied greatly among study participants. Our microbiological sampling, while validated and reproducible, assessed only bacterial growth on a subset of environmental surfaces. Oral hygiene---or the process of caring for the teeth and gums---is vital for optimal health and attractiveness. Despite such observational data, interventional studies have yielded mixed results. It is important for maintaining both physical and mental health. Statistical significance was set to alpha less than or equal to 0.05. How Does the 25th Amendment Work — and When Should It Be Enacted? Hair –Again, like the beard, the idea is to maintain it and keep it trimmed, especially the sides and rear. No, Is the Subject Area "Medical risk factors" applicable to this article? Our data suggest that most college students have a clear understanding of hygiene benefits and place significant belief in its ability to prevent infection and promote health. He or she will act as the director of the public works, engineering and environmental hygiene division and will oversee its operations and activities. Environmental hygiene is a group of activities that aim to protect people from dangerous conditions arising from unsanitary shelters, air supplies or bodily nourishment centers. In the non-outbreak community setting, case reports have documented recurrent staphylococcal infections that have been resolved only after various household surfaces were decontaminated , . Promoting good personal hygiene and sanitation is therefore, the preferred option to improve the quality of life at the grass root level. It is possible that in certain populations at elevated risk for infection – including college dormitory residents – environmental contamination may be of increased importance, thereby mimicking healthcare populations rather than lower risk community residents. Whether environmental sampling of additional surfaces, particularly those in common or public spaces, would have altered study finding is unknown. Assessment of personal and environmental hygiene in our study is based on the aspects endorsed by World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) as a set of practices and conditions for better health maintenance and … You … Subject demographics are listed in Table 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460.t001. 5:22 am IST on. (2013) Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011. Although a growing literature has clarified the determinants and effects of particular hygiene behaviors, many practices remain incompletely understood . Further study into environmental reservoirs of infectious diseases may delineate the importance of surface contamination and define the relative impact of household hygiene interventions in this important setting. Yes e81460. Women were significantly more likely than men to report washing their hands always or most of the time in all scenarios except before eating. While all individuals would likely benefit from improved hygiene practices, certain populations may be particularly impacted by directed hygiene interventions. Many diseases can be spread if the hands, face, or body are not washed appropriately at key times. This research was approved by the Columbia University Medical Center Institutional Review Board (CUMC IRB) and conducted with the assistance of Student Health Services, Housing Services, and Dining Services. Previous studies have shown that self-reported hygiene surveys often overestimate true hygiene behavior, sometimes substantially . Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. For example, many people naturally avoid those who sneeze and cough in their face without covering the mouth. Poor personal hygiene leaves visible signs of poor health on a person’s body. No, Is the Subject Area "Hand washing" applicable to this article? Despite this, processing times showed variability (12 to 72 hours, average 36 hours) and we were not able to assess for differences in isolation or quantification of bacteria between these time points. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, The Environmental Hygiene Team operates under the direction of Registered Occupational Hygienist Broderick Mossman. As this is the first study of dormitory residents to evaluate the relationship between environmental colonization, reported hygiene habits, and reported health status, it is not possible to assess for congruence with other studies. Fact Check: Is the COVID-19 Vaccine Safe? Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York, United States of America, Affiliation Recruitment procedures are detailed in our previous research in this population, and briefly described below . Good hygiene is an important barrier to many infectious diseases, including the faecal–oral diseases, and it promotes better health and well-being. Yes Microbiological samples were collected using pre-moistened rayon-tipped culturette swabs (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ). Wrote the paper: BAM. Hand hygiene has been shown to reduce the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections . Center for Interdisciplinary Research to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America, No, Is the Subject Area "Habits" applicable to this article? Presents the types of qualification examinations that are offered by the Industrial Hygiene Faculty to classify members in the existing categories. Copyright: © 2013 Miko et al. Yes Is the Subject Area "Hygiene" applicable to this article? Environmental hygienists work with local and federal authorities to uncover potential sources of contamination within these systems. Outbreaks of influenza, non-influenza respiratory viruses, measles, mumps, varicella, and rubella have all been noted among residents of college dormitories , , , . Personal hygiene has a tremendous impact on food hygiene and presentation. You can use soap if you like, but make sure you rinse it off well. Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to hygiene or health in the college setting. Despite its simple, cost-effective nature, adequate hand washing is rarely practiced, even in developed countries where hygiene supplies are readily available , , . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081460.t003. here. Good personal hygiene habits are directly related to less illnesses and better health. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (on a dish, bookshelf, and remote control) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (on a remote control, keyboard, desk, light switch, refrigerator handle, bathroom door handle, and three bookshelves). Conceived and designed the experiments: BAM BC SLS EL. 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. All Columbia University freshmen are required to purchase a meal plan and therefore utilize the dining hall on a regular basis. Some students reported household hygiene that varied with perceived risk of infection: 152 subjects (30.3%) reported cleaning more frequently when their roommate was ill; 127 subjects (25.3%) cleaned more frequently when residents of their floor were sick. Signs of poor health keep many people at distance to avoid getting a disease. While methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was isolated from several surfaces (computer keyboards, telephones, and elevator buttons), no methicillin-resistant (MR) strains were found. Refrigerated specimens were transported to the laboratory and processed after an average time of 36 hours (range 12 to 72 hours). Published. While the toxin is being removed, the hygienists might also hold forums explaining the symptoms and treatments of MRSA to anyone who is affected by it. Basis, because of the manuscript reduction in symptoms from viral infectious [! Significant bacterial surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency cleaning! 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Avoid those who sneeze and cough in their dormitory environment were collected using pre-moistened culturette! Shown to reduce the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections [ 1 ] playing the role the!